Drip irrigation is a form of micro-irrigation that has the potential to save lots of water and nutrients by allowing water to drip slowly to the roots of plants, either from the soil surface or buried below the surface. The goal is to position water directly into the basis zone and minimize evaporation. Drip irrigation systems distribute water through a network of valves, pipes, tubing, and emitters. Depending on however neat, installed, maintained, and operated it is, a drip irrigation system is more economical than different kinds of irrigation systems, like surface irrigation or mechanical device irrigation.
In drip irrigation systems, pump and valves is also manually or mechanically operated by a controller.
Most massive drip irrigation systems use some style of filter to forestall prevent clogging of the small emitter flow path by small waterborne particles. New technologies are currently being offered that minimize clogging. Some residential systems are put in without extra filters, since potable water is already filtered at the water treatment plant. Just about all drip irrigation equipment makers advocate that filters use and usually won’t honor warranties unless this is often done. Last line filters simply before the ultimate delivery pipe are powerfully counseled additionally to the other filtration system thanks to fine particle settlement and accidental insertion of particles within the intermediate lines.
Drip and subsurface drip irrigation is used solely once mistreatment recycled municipal waste water. Rules usually don’t allow spraying water through the air that has not been absolutely treated to potable water standards.
Because of the means the water is applied during a drip system, ancient surface applications of timed-release fertiliser are typically ineffective, thus drip systems usually combine liquid fertiliser with the irrigation water. This is often referred to as fertigation; fertigation and chemigation (application of pesticides and different chemicals to periodically clean out the system, like halogen or sulphuric acid) use chemical injectors like diaphragm pumps, piston pumps, or aspirators. The chemicals is also added perpetually whenever the system is irrigating or at intervals. Fertiliser savings of up to ninety five percent are being rumored from recent university field tests mistreatment drip fertigation and slow water delivery as compared to timed-release and irrigation by small spray heads.
Properly designed, installed, and managed, drip irrigation could facilitate succeed conservation by reducing evaporation and deep voidance compared to different kinds of irrigation like flood or overhead sprinklers since water may be additional exactly applied to the plant roots. additionally, drip will eliminate several diseases that are unfold through water contact with the foliage. Finally, in regions wherever water supplies are severely restricted, there is also no actual water savings, however rather merely a rise in production whereas mistreatment identical quantity of water as before. In terribly arid regions or on sandy soils, the popular methodology is to use the irrigation water as slowly as possible.
Advantages of Drip Irrigation
The advantages of drip irrigation are:
- chemical and nutrient loss is reduced owing to localized application and reduced leach.
- Water application potency is high if managed properly.
- Field levelling isn’t necessary. Fields with irregular shapes are simply accommodated.
- Recycled non-potable water are often safely used.
- Soil type plays less significant role in frequency of irrigation.
- Soil erosion is lessened.
- Weed growth is lessened.
- Water distribution is very uniform, controlled by output of every nozzle.
- Labour value is a smaller amount than alternative irrigation strategies.
- Variation in supply are often regulated by regulation of valves and drippers.
- Fertigation will simply be enclosed with negligible waste of fertilizers.
- Foliage remains dry, reducing the danger of malady.
- Sometimes operated at lower pressure than alternative kinds of controlled irrigation, reducing energy prices.
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The apricot favors well drained soil but doesn’t like to be too dry especially in the summer. Providing a happy medium between the two will be key to success and it is up to you to judge the type of soil you already have and influence the structure as much as you can. Too light or sandy then pep it up with lots and lots of organic rich material. Too weighty or sluggish then alleviate it with lots of grit, sharp sand and leaf mold.
The soil should be well cultivated and friable; double dig-it over if it has not been cultivated before. Clear away all perennial weeds because the last thing you want is added competition from them when your trees are in settled, and growing.
Prepare a hole large enough to take the roots. Apricots are vigorous growers and you may find the root system larger than that of other trees. Set the tree to the same depth as it was at the nursery previously – examination of the stem should reveal the soil mark still identifiable and this will tell you how deeply it was set in the ground before. In any event the grafting point should sit above the soil level and the roots buried in not less than 2” of soil.
Dry mulches should be used to retain moisture while heavy banana stems should be supported to avoid damage. Old diseased leaves should be removed while de-leafing is important to ensure healthy growth. Harvesting begins after 15-18 months, and a light shiny appearance means that the banana is ready for harvest. Harvesting should be delicate to avoid bruising of the bananas. The bananas should be temporarily stored in a cool, dry place and should be wrapped in banana leaves or grass to avoid bruising. If for export, they should be washed using a disinfectant and might require branding.
Plums are excellent fresh but also make a wonderful jam or jelly. Plums require full sun and well-drained, sandy soil to thrive. They prefer a soil with a pH that ranges from 5.5 to 6.5. It is always a good idea to have your soil tested before planting any fruit tree to be sure that they pH is appropriate. You should also work the appropriate amendments into your soil before planting. Their overall size may also need to be considered. Most plum trees will reach 16 feet at maturity or 14 feet if they are a dwarf variety.
Plums have quite high moisture demands, so they are best planted on good clay or loamy soils. But sites also need to be well drained as plums, and gages in particular, hate waterlogged soils. Add bulky organic matter to sandy or shallow chalky soils prior to planting.
Plant plum trees in well-drained, moderately fertile soil in full sun. Avoid planting in low areas where frost may settle, as the frost will damage your trees. If possible, find a sheltered position, such as a south- or west-facing spot out of the wind. This will help the plum tree set fruit. For grafted trees, keep the graft union 1 inch above the soil line when planting. Dig a hole that is a few inches deeper and wider than the spread of the roots. Set the tree on top of a small mound of soil in the middle of the hole. Be sure to spread the roots away from the trunk without excessively bending them. Space standard-size trees 20 to 25 feet apart. Space dwarf trees 15 to 20 feet apart.
Plums develop their best flavor if left to ripen on the tree. If they feel soft when gently squeezed, they are ripe. Trees will generally need picking over several times. Harvest fruits carefully so as not to bruise them, then eat fresh, destone and freeze, or make the fruits into preserves.
Tamarillo best known by the name tree-tomatoes in Kenya is a fast-growing tree that grows up to 5 meters. Peak production is reached after 1-3 years, and the life expectancy is about 12 years. The tree usually forms a single upright trunk with lateral branches. They produce 1 to 6 fruits per cluster. Plants can set fruit without cross-pollination, but the flowers are fragrant and attract insects. Cross-pollination seems to improve fruit set.
The Tree-Tomato prefers subtropical climate, they grow in many parts of kenya with rainfall between 600 and 4000 millimeters and annual temperatures between 15 and 20 °C. It is intolerant to frost (below -2 °C) and drought stress. It is assumed that fruit set is affected by night temperatures. Areas where citrus are cultivated provide good conditions for Tree-Tomatos. Tree-Tomato plants grow best in light, deep, fertile soils, although they are not very demanding. However, soils must be permeable since the plants are not tolerant to water-logging. They grow naturally on soils with a pH of 5 to 8.5. They are as well planted by irrigation as they also do well.
we graft our seedling with "muthakwa" to ensure our tees are resistant to nematodes, they are drought resistant, mature fast in 9 months compared to other that mature in more than a year. Due to good feeding our fruits are bigger than normal.