Drip irrigation is a form of micro-irrigation that has the potential to save lots of water and nutrients by allowing water to drip slowly to the roots of plants, either from the soil surface or buried below the surface. The goal is to position water directly into the basis zone and minimize evaporation. Drip irrigation systems distribute water through a network of valves, pipes, tubing, and emitters. Depending on however neat, installed, maintained, and operated it is, a drip irrigation system is more economical than different kinds of irrigation systems, like surface irrigation or mechanical device irrigation.
In drip irrigation systems, pump and valves is also manually or mechanically operated by a controller.
Most massive drip irrigation systems use some style of filter to forestall prevent clogging of the small emitter flow path by small waterborne particles. New technologies are currently being offered that minimize clogging. Some residential systems are put in without extra filters, since potable water is already filtered at the water treatment plant. Just about all drip irrigation equipment makers advocate that filters use and usually won’t honor warranties unless this is often done. Last line filters simply before the ultimate delivery pipe are powerfully counseled additionally to the other filtration system thanks to fine particle settlement and accidental insertion of particles within the intermediate lines.
Drip and subsurface drip irrigation is used solely once mistreatment recycled municipal waste water. Rules usually don’t allow spraying water through the air that has not been absolutely treated to potable water standards.
Because of the means the water is applied during a drip system, ancient surface applications of timed-release fertiliser are typically ineffective, thus drip systems usually combine liquid fertiliser with the irrigation water. This is often referred to as fertigation; fertigation and chemigation (application of pesticides and different chemicals to periodically clean out the system, like halogen or sulphuric acid) use chemical injectors like diaphragm pumps, piston pumps, or aspirators. The chemicals is also added perpetually whenever the system is irrigating or at intervals. Fertiliser savings of up to ninety five percent are being rumored from recent university field tests mistreatment drip fertigation and slow water delivery as compared to timed-release and irrigation by small spray heads.
Properly designed, installed, and managed, drip irrigation could facilitate succeed conservation by reducing evaporation and deep voidance compared to different kinds of irrigation like flood or overhead sprinklers since water may be additional exactly applied to the plant roots. additionally, drip will eliminate several diseases that are unfold through water contact with the foliage. Finally, in regions wherever water supplies are severely restricted, there is also no actual water savings, however rather merely a rise in production whereas mistreatment identical quantity of water as before. In terribly arid regions or on sandy soils, the popular methodology is to use the irrigation water as slowly as possible.
Advantages of Drip Irrigation
The advantages of drip irrigation are:
- chemical and nutrient loss is reduced owing to localized application and reduced leach.
- Water application potency is high if managed properly.
- Field levelling isn’t necessary. Fields with irregular shapes are simply accommodated.
- Recycled non-potable water are often safely used.
- Soil type plays less significant role in frequency of irrigation.
- Soil erosion is lessened.
- Weed growth is lessened.
- Water distribution is very uniform, controlled by output of every nozzle.
- Labour value is a smaller amount than alternative irrigation strategies.
- Variation in supply are often regulated by regulation of valves and drippers.
- Fertigation will simply be enclosed with negligible waste of fertilizers.
- Foliage remains dry, reducing the danger of malady.
- Sometimes operated at lower pressure than alternative kinds of controlled irrigation, reducing energy prices.
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Soils should be well drained. Wet soils lead to poor aeration and increased incidence of crown rot in apples (Phytophthora cactorum). Generally, rooting tends to be shallow, and wet soils will restrict development, resulting in poor anchorage of the tree and a reduced area of soil from which nutrients can be extracted. Soils with high organic matter contents are normally better structured and allow good rooting.
Irrigation is necessary on dry soils, particularly when establishing and growing young orchards. Trickle irrigation and fertigation are increasingly used. In young orchards fertigation helps increase early tree growth and brings trees into bearing earlier. Sprinkler irrigation can be used to protect the tree buds and fruitlets against frost damage.
Sowing of a grass mulch between the tree rows is common practice, which together with any clippings, helps to increase water holding capacity, infiltration rate, soil aggregation and recycling of nutrients.
Apples prefer a slightly acidic to neutral soil (pH between 5.8 and 7.0). Extreme soil pH values result in nutrient tie-up or toxicity and poor tree and fruit development. It is important to amend the pH in acidic soils by incorporating lime before planting
Tangerines are relatively cold-tolerant, making them easier to grow than oranges, grapefruits and other types of citrus. Some varieties, such as the Citrus reticulata "Dancy," are heat-tolerant and do best when summers are hot, but other types, including the Citrus reticulata "Sunburst," do best when summers are on the cool side.
Citrus species can thrive in a wide range of soil and climatic conditions. Citrus is grown from sea level up to an altitude of 2100 m but for optimal growth a temperature range from 2° to 30° C is ideal. Long periods below 0°C are injurious to the trees and at -13° C growth diminishes. However, individual species and varieties decrease in susceptibility to low temperatures in the following sequence: grapefruit, sweet orange, mandarin, lemon/lime and trifoliate orange as most hardy.
Temperature plays an important role in the production of high quality fruit. Typical coloring of fruit takes place if night temperatures are about 14° C coupled with low humidity during ripening time. Exposure to strong winds and temperatures above 38° C may cause fruit drop, scarring and scorching of fruits. In the tropics, the high lands provide the best night weather for orange color and flavor.
people; they don’t need to work so hard nor climb to pick the nuts but wait for them to fall. The macadamia nut tree is indigenous to Australia but introduced in Kenya in 1945 to 1948. In Kenya, it grows roughly in the same climate suitable for growing coffee.
The grafted seedling takes 3-4 months to be ready for planting out in the farm. Seedlings are planting out in the field at a spacing of 9m x 9m or 10 m x 10 m or more if the trees are
intercropped with coffee or any other crop e.g. maize; however, if they are being planted as pure orchard, the spacing should be 4m x 10 m or 5 m x 10 m.
Kenya is sitting on a gold mine that if properly utilized would reap huge benefits for the country.
For many years, tea and coffee farming has been the major source of income for thousands of
farmers, however they are now changing tides and switching to macadamia nut farming.
Macadamia has become a lucrative produce all over sudden with a kilo of the nuts selling for
more than a hundred and a grafted seedling price shooting up from 300 to 500 Kenya Shillings.
Between1986 to 2002 the price ranged between 7 to 23 Shillings per kg., and in 2005 it averaged
80 Shillings per Kg.
The Kenya macadamia nut industry is currently made of approximately 900,000 trees of varying ages from one year to 20 years, grown by over 100,000 small scale farmers with an average of 6 -12 trees per grower. Annual production is about 4,000 metric tons of nuts-in-shell. These produce about 800 metric tons of marketable kernels, making the main commercial product. Other by products such as oil, are minimal. Producers get from nuts-in-shell Shillings 92 million per year.
Kenya is the third largest macadamia producer and the second largest exporter of macadamias. Many Kenyan farmers are integrating macadamia trees into their coffee and tea plantations. They view macadamia output as insurance against the uncertainties of weather which affect coffee and tea.