Drip irrigation is a micro irrigation method in which the rate of water application is very low and without any pressure. i.e., drop by drop. Drip irrigation is based on the basic concept of irrigation only the roots zone of crop, rather than the entire land surface on which the crop is grown. Water flows from the emission points through the soil by capillarity and gravity. The soil moisture content of the crop root zone is maintained at near optimum level to facilitate optimum crop growth and production.
Drip irrigation is useful for fruit crops Banana, Grapes, Citrus, Pomegranate, Papaya, Pineapple, Watermelon, Sweet lime, Mango.
Advantages of Drip Irrigation in Fruits
- Increased yield
- Early maturity
- Water saving
- Fertilizer saving
- Increased fertilizer use efficiency by crop
- Energy saving
- Labor saving
- Marginal land & undulated land can be irrigated
- Use of saline water is possible for irrigation
- Reduced weed growth
- Less problem of disease and pest
- Easy intercultural operations
- High cost: drip irrigation systems are expensive because of their requirements of large quantity of piping & filtration equipment to clean the water.
- Expense: Initial cost can be more than overhead systems.
- Waste: The sun can affect the tubes used for drip irrigation, shortening their usable life. Longevity is variable.
- Clogging: If the water is not properly filtered and the equipment not properly maintained, it can result in clogging.
- Drip tape causes extra cleanup costs after harvest. You’ll need to plan for drip tape winding, disposal, recycling or reuse.
This method is not suitable for closely planted crops such as wheat
Components of Drip Irrigation System
- Pumping set: To create a pressure about 2.5 Kg/sq. cm to regulate the amount of water to be supplied.
- Filter: To filter the water in Order to remove the suspended impurities from water.
- Main lines: It is a Distribution system in drip irrigation. Rigid PVC and high-density polyethylene pipes are used as main pipes to minimized corrosion and clogging.
- Pipes of 65 mm diameter and with pressure rating of 4 to 10 kg/sq. cm
- Sub Main: It is usually connected to the main lines through a control valve assembly. The function of its to distributes water uniformly to a number laterals.
- Drippers/emitters: It is fitted to a drip irrigation lateral and intended to emit water in the form of drops or continuous flow at emitter rates not exceeding 15 liters/hr.
- Drippers function as energy dissipated, reducing the inlet pressure head in the lateral, which generally range from 0.3 to 1.5 atmosphere.
Drip irrigation system is an economical and very efficient system of irrigating for fruit crops, vegetables, row crops etc. Drip irrigated crops use less water compared to overhead irrigated crops. Drip irrigation increase yield.
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The condition most limiting to growing an avocado tree is cold weather. Hass Avocado varieties are the most cold-hardy, but they can tolerate cold temperatures to only about 20 degrees Fahrenheit. During freezing weather, it helps to drape blankets or tarps over a young tree and anchor the coverings to the ground. If an avocado tree is large, then mounding soil or mulch high on the tree trunk for winter can help the tree survive cold temperatures.
An avocado tree can grow successfully in a variety of soil types and in soil with acidic or alkaline pH levels, but the tree requires soil that has good drainage. It declines in poorly draining and saline soil. Although an avocado tree cannot tolerate wet soil, it needs at least 1 inch of water every week during periods of insufficient rainfall. Not fertilizing the tree until it is 1 year old is recommended. Young trees need four applications of a balanced manure and older trees need twice-yearly applications of a high-nitrogen product applied in early December and late July.
habits as well as their training and trellising requirements. The fruit normally ripens within 25 weeks after the flowers first appear. The fruits range in weight from 40 to 90 g and can be picked shortly after the first frost in autumn; after that, they can be kept in cold storage for 4–6 months at 00 C. Kiwi vines can be grown on a wide range of soil types at elevations ranging from 1000 m to 2500 m.
The kiwi plant is dioecious, meaning individual plants are either male or female. Only female plants bear fruit, but only when pollinated by a male plant. Vines of both sexes are essential for fruit production, and they must flower at the same time to ensure pollination. One male pollinator vine is required for eight female vines. The vines are commonly supported on sturdy structures strong enough to bear the heavy fruit, which might otherwise break the rather weak vines. T-bars or hitching post trellises are recommended to support the large fruiting area in the
form of a canopy and provide easy access to the fruit.
Oranges can be grown from as low as sea level to 200m above sea level. Areas of low humidity are most ideal. Such a climate is important for reduced disease intensity and for acquiring good orange colour. A dry hot day, cool at night climate also favours good color development. Citrus requires temperature ranges from 13oC-38oC. Optimum temperature is 25oC-35oC. Extremely high temperatures may be harmful especially during flowering or if cool temperatures are followed by a hot period. Damage occurs in the form of flower and leaf drop. Wind can also cause serious damage to orange trees and fruits. Hot dry wind will often scorch trees by drying young leaves. Winds of high speeds will scar fruits and cause fruit drop. Where winds are a problem, wind break shelters should be planted
The ideal spot for a mature pawpaw is in a sunny location protected from the wind and endowed with plenty of rich, well-drained soil. The seedling should be protected from direct sunlight for the first year or two, so filter the sun with an open-ended barrel or some netting. After that, full sun is preferred.
Tree Growing papaya trees is generally done from seed that is extracted from ripe fruit. If you are using a fruit from a grocery store, it is most likely going to be a bisexual plant. You should plant several seeds per pot to ensure germination. Under full sunlight, seedlings may emerge in about two weeks. Plants can be set out after they are a foot tall and spaced 8 to 10 feet apart. The seedlings will flower after five or six months.
Pawpaw also grow best in full sun. Papayas like well-drained soil, and because of shallow roots, growing pawpaw trees will not tolerate wet conditions. In addition to proper pawpaw growing conditions, suitable care of pawpaw fruit trees is also important. For pawpaw trees to thrive, they require some fertilizer. Provide young plants fertilizer every 14 days using ¼ pound of complete fertilizer. Fertilize older trees with 1 to 2 pounds of fertilizer once a month. Also, be sure to take a soil sample and amend as necessary.